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Genome engineering has for decades been a key driver of understanding and more recently has seen major advances that have led to gene editing.
In the plant world, crosses between varieties, methods of selection, techniques of in vitro multiplication, mutagenesis, transgenesis, and recently gene editing have enabled the adaptation of certain plants to human needs, while raising societal, ethical, and intellectual property issues.
In the present opinion, the CCNE defines four principles and perspectives.
At the same time, the French, English and German Ethics Committees published in Nature a joint declaration on the ethical implications of targeted modifications of the human genome.